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Fletet e Verdha - Berati - ne Flete te Verdha
 
Te dhena administrative
Shteti Albania ( Shqiperia )
Shteti Shqipėria
Qarku Qarku i Beratit
Rrethi Rrethi i Beratit
Targat e automjeteve BR
Popullsia 69,000 banorė
Kodi postar 5001-5006 [1]
Prefiksi telefonik +355 (0) 32
Bashkia e Beratit
Politika
Kryetari Fadil Nasufi
Partia udhėheqėse Partia Socialiste
Tė tjera
Vendasit Beratas
Zona kohore
Zakonisht ZKEQ (UTC+1)
Nė verė OVEQ (UTC+2)
  •Te dhena administrative
Shteti Albania ( Shqiperia )
Shteti Shqipėria
Qarku Qarku i Beratit
Rrethi Rrethi i Beratit
Targat e automjeteve BR
Popullsia 69,000 banorė
Kodi postar 5001-5006 [1]
Prefiksi telefonik +355 (0) 32
Bashkia e Beratit
Politika
Kryetari Fadil Nasufi
Partia udhėheqėse Partia Socialiste
Tė tjera
Vendasit Beratas
Zona kohore
Zakonisht ZKEQ (UTC+1)
Nė verė OVEQ (UTC+2)

 

 

Qyteti i Beratit ėshtė ngritur fillimisht si kėshtjellė, mbi kodrėn shkėmbore me lartėsi 187 m mbi nivelin e detit, nė krahun e djathtė tė lumit Osum, para se ky tė dalė nė fushėn e Myzeqesė, mė e madhja e Shqipėrisė. Rrethi i Beratit shtrihet nė Krahinėn Malore Qendrore e pjesėrisht nė Ultėsirėn Jugperėndimore tė Shqipėrisė, nė koordinatat: gjerėsi gjeografike: Veri 40 gradė 52'24”; Jug 40 gradė 29'30” (qyteti 40 gradė 41'06”); gjatėsi gjeografike: Lindje 20 gradė 10'51”; Perėndim 19 gradė 44'30” (qyteti 19 gradė 56'40”). Rrethi mbulon njė sipėrfaqe prej 953,6 km katror (qyteti 1,6 km katror).

Relievi

Rrethi i Beratit shtrihet kryesisht nė njė territor me reliev malor e kodrinor, me lartėsi mesatare mbi nivelin e detit 455 m (qyteti 58 m). Fushat shtrihen nė krahun veri-perėndimor tė rrethit, nė luginėn e Osumit, derisa ajo bashkohet me fushėn e Myzeqesė. Nė mjedisin natyror tė Beratit dallohen: zona fushore e kodrinore e Beratit dhe e Kuēovės, mali i Tomorit (Lindje, 2417 m) dhe ai i Shpiragut (Perėndim, 1218 m) si edhe lugina e Osumit dhe e Tomoricės. Zona fushore dhe ajo kodrinore janė baza e zhvillimit tė prodhimit bujqėsor, ndėrsa malet dhe luginat pėrfaqėsojnė burime tė mėdha pyjore, kullosore dhe hidrike, ende tė pashfrytėzuara si potenciale tė rėndėsishme tė zhvillimit ekonomik e mjedisor.


Lumenjtė

Lumi i Osumit rrjedh pėrmes qytetit dhe jashtė tij, afėr Urės Vajgurore, bashkohet me lumin e Devollit; tė dy sėbashku formojnė Semanin (gjatėsia e tij brenda rrethit 32 km). Osumi ėshtė pėr MUA. Njė nga lumenjtė kryesorė tė vendit. Ai paraqet interes pėr bujqėsinė, energjitikėn, hidrogjeologjinė, ekologjinė dhe urbanistikėn. Sipas treguesve hidrologjikė, pėr nga gjatėsia rradhitet i 8-ti, pėr nga baseni ujėmbledhės i 10-ti, pėr nga prurja mesatare vjetore i 11-ti dhe pėr nga lartėsia mesatare e rrjedhjes i 4-ti. Krijon rrjedhėn e tij tė plotė pranė Vithkuqit, vend qė merret si pika e fillimit tė lumit. Nė basenin e Osumit veshja bimore (698 km katror ) pėrbėhet nga pisha, bredhi, dushku e shkurre tė tjera mesdhetare. Nė zonėn e Ēorovodės e Skraparit krijon kanione vertikale shumė tė bukur, me forma tė ndryshme, me thellėsi deri 150 m e 15-20 m tė gjera. Osumi transporton nė Seman 995 milionė m kub ujė nė vit, me prurje mesatare 32,5 m kub /sek (nė Berat 25-26,9 m kub /sek). Sasia vjetore e prurjes sė ngurtė 1,356 milionė m kub. Gjatėsia e Osumit brenda rrethit ėshtė 51 km.


Klima

Klima e rrethit ėshtė tipike mesdhetare, me temperaturė mesatare vjetore 15,9 gradė C. Temperatura mesatare e muajve mė tė ftohtė ėshtė 7,2 gradė C dhe ajo e muajve mė tė nxehtė 28,2 gradė C. Temperatura absolute mė e ulėt ka qenė –12,2 gradė C dhe ajo maksimale 47,1 gradė C. Sasia mesatare vjetore e rreshjeve ėshtė 928 mm, kryesisht nė muajt e dimrit. Qyteti i Beratit ėshtė i ventiluar mirė dhe ajri ėshtė i pastėr falė edhe gjelbėrimit brenda qytetit dhe nė kodrat qė e rrethojnė. Tokat bujqėsore janė kryesisht tė hinjta-kafe, me shpėrndarje: 36% nė fushė, 38% nė zonė kodrinore dhe 26% nė zonė malore.
Historia
Berati ne vitin 1830


Hyrja e kalase tė Beratit

Berati u pėrket qyteteve tė rrallė ku jeta fillon qysh nė lashtėsinė e thellė dhe vazhdon pa u ndėrprerė deri mė sot. Dy ēekanė guri e datojnė fillimin e jetės nė tė para Periudhės sė Bronzit (2600-1800 P.Kr.). Dėshmitė arkeologjike tregojnė se nė shek. VII-VI P.Kr. Kėtu ėshtė zhvilluar njė vendbanim paraqytetar, me punishtet e tij tė qeramikės dhe me njė jetė shoqėrore tė diferencuar. Nė kufijtė e legjendės dhe tė historisė, ky vendbanim thuhet tė ketė qenė Orestiada e lashtė, i quajtur kėshtu ngaqė aty banonin njė fis i pellazgėve, orestėt, i pari i tė cilėve ishte Oresti, i biri i Agamemnonit. Qyteti i mirėfilltė u themelua mė 313-310 P.Kr. si qytet-kėshtjellė i Dasaretisė, i quajtur Antipatrea nga mbreti Kasandėr nė kujtim tė gjeneralit mėkėmbės tė Lekės sė Madh. Ky ėshtė emri i parė i qytetit. Pas pushtimit romak nė shek. II P.Kr. ai u quajt prej tyre Albanorum Oppidum (Fortesa e Arbėrve). Nė shek. V, nėn perandorinė Bizantine, u pėrforcua dhe e ndryshoi emrin nė Pulheriopolis (Qytet i bukur). I pushtuar nga bullgarėt nė shek. IX, u quajt Belgrad (Qytet i bardhė) –

 

Berati i sotėm.
Muzakajt

Nėn zotėrimin e Muzakajve, nė shek. XIII-XIV, qyteti filloi tė shtrihej jashtė mureve tė kėshtjellės. Nė kėtė kohė Berati arrin shtrirjen mė tė madhe territoriale, zhvillohet dhe bėhet njė qendėr e rėndėsishme ekonomike, tregtare, administrative e kulturore. Nė 1417 qyteti pushtohet nga turqit dhe zhvillimi i tij u ul ndjeshėm, por nga fillimi i shek. XVI ai e mori veten, pėr tu bėrė pėrsėri njė nga qytetet mė tė mėdhenj tė Shqipėrisė. Nė shek. XVII ai vazhdonte tė ishte qyteti mė i madh i Shqipėrisė, me 500 shtėpi tė shpėrndara nė 30 lagje dhe me 5 medrese. Berati nė kėtė kohė bėhet qendra kryesore ekonomike e vendit, me zhvillim tė madh tė zejtarisė e tė tregtisė. Tani Berati ishte kryeqendra e sanxhakut tė Vlorės tė pėrbėrė nga kazatė e: Myzeqesė, Tomoricės, Skraparit, Pėrmetit, Pogonit, Tepelenės e Vlorės. Nė Berat tregtonin mallrat e tyre tregtarė tė huaj. Nė shek. XVIII Berati bėhet qendėr e pashallėkut tė madh tė Ahmet Kurt Pashės. Ali Pashė Tepelena e bashkoi atė me pashallėkun e tij tė Janinės dhe pėrforcoi muret e kėshtjellės. Nė kėtė periudhė tregtarėt e mėdhenj beratas kishin marrėdhėnie me Venetikun, Triesten, Raguzėn, Ankonėn, Korfuzin, Maltėn, Aleksandrinė, Izmirin, Selanikun, Stambollin, Sofien, Nishin, Belgradin, etj. Berati pėrdorte dy skela: Vlorėn dhe Durrėsin. Ai ishte bėrė kėshtu kryeqendėr e njė sistemi tė madh ndėrkrahinor. Tregtarėt beratas kishin agjencitė e tyre nė Durrės, Vlorė, Elbasan, Korēė. Tregtarėt e mėdhenj shkodranė kishin nė Berat agjencinė e tyre tregtare.berati vjen nga iliret bir ate qe simbas legjendave filluan ndertimin e kalase per tu mbrojtur nga sulmusit.
 

Pas tėrmetit

Berati mori pamjen e sotme nė shek. XVIII dhe sidomos nė shek. XIX, pas tėrmetit tė vitit 1851. Nė fund tė viteve 30 tė shek. XIX Berati kishte 8000 banorė dhe si tė gjithė qytetet e tjerė ruante karakterin e ekonomisė sė vogėl zejtare. Tashmė ishin shfaqur punishtet e tipit tė manifakturave, por ende tė paēliruara nga normat tradicionale esnafore. Nga mesi i shek. XIX Berati zinte vendin e dytė pas Shkodrės pėr fuqinė ekonomike tė tregtarėve tė mėdhenj, tė cilėt kishin korrespondentė ose agjenci nė Durrės e Vlorė si edhe nė Trieste, Korfuz e Maltė. Ekzistonin punishte me 5 deri 10 krahė pune dhe disa fabrika tė vogla mielli e vaji. Nė fund tė viteve 1800 nė qytet kishte 820 punishte zejtare e dyqane, duke qenė kėshtu qendra mė e lulėzuar ekonomike, tregtare e kulturore e Shqipėrisė sė Jugut.

Deri nė mes tė shek. XX nė Berat ekzistonin ende tre tregje tė gjerė tė cilėt funksiononin rregullisht ēdo tė shtunė: Pazari i misrit, Pazari i bulmetit dhe Pazari i gjėsė sė gjallė. Tregu kishte 4 qendra kryesore: tė opingarėve, tė mestexhijve, tė tabakėve dhe tė kazanxhijve. Ekzistonte edhe tregu i ri, me 100 dyqane moderne ku pėrfaqėsoheshin tė gjitha llojet e tregtive. Pėr nga numri i zejtarėve Berati ishte nė vend tė parė; ushtroheshin rreth 23 lloj zeje. Ēdo zeje sistemohej nė njė rrugė tė cilės i jepte emrin. Deri nė gjysmėn e dytė tė shek. XX vazhdonin tė ekzistonin rrugėt e: kazanxhinjve, bakėrxhinjve, xhokaxhinjve, leshpunuesve, rrobaqepėsve, kazazėve (qėndistarė), argjendarėve, armėtarėve, opingarėve, kujinxhinjve, samarxhinjve, etj.
Kultura
Qytet muze

Nė vitin 1961 Berati u shpall zyrtarisht qytet muze. Ai ėshtė qytet muze me pasuri tė konsiderueshme monumentesh dhe me vlera tė larmishme pėr nga gjinitė, tė cilat pėrbėjnė njė dėshmi tė trashėgimisė kulturore, historike e artistike, tė jetės e tė punės, tė realizuara mjeshtėrisht brez pas brezi nga banorėt e tij. Nga zonifikimi dhe nga pėrcaktimi i kategorisė sė monumenteve qyteti ndahet nė tri zona : zona muze, zona e mbrojtur dhe zona e lirė.

Sot Berati trashėgon 210 objekte muzeale, nga tė cilat 150 janė objekte nė kėmbė. Prej tyre 60 janė monumente tė kategorisė sė parė dhe tė tjerat tė kategorisė sė dytė.

Midis kėtyre vlerave, nga mė tė spikaturat janė :
Kėshtjella

Kėshtjella ose kalaja, siē quhet nga beratasit ėshtė ndėrtuar mbi kodrėn shkėmbore nė formė trekėndėshi, me perimetėr tė mureve 1440 m, me 24 kulla e me dy porta. Me themelet e saj ilire, e rindėrtuar disa herė nė shekujt VI, XIII, XV dhe XIX ajo ėshtė sot jo vetėm njė nga kėshtjellat mė tė mėdha tė banuara, por edhe njė arkiv i gurtė qė ofron varietete stilesh dhe kontributesh tė epokave tė ndryshme : ilire, romako-bizantine, shqiptare e turke. Kėshtjella ėshtė pjesė e legjendės sė vjetėr e tė bukur tė Tomorit dhe Shpiragut.
Ura e Goricės

Ura e Goricės ėshtė njė nga monumentet e kulturės dhe tė arkitekturės sė Beratit dhe njėkohėsisht njė nga simbolet e tij. Rreth viteve 1780 me pėrkujdesjen e Ahmet Kurt Pashės, nga urė druri nė pjesėn e sipėrme, ajo u ndėrtua e gjitha prej guri. Ajo u rindėrtua pėrsėri duke marrė pamjen qė ruan sot, me parmakė betoni, nė vitin 1922 nga bashkia e qytetit. Ėshtė 129,3 m e gjatė, 5,3 m e gjerė, ngrihet 10 m mbi lumė dhe ka 7 harqe me hapėsira 9 deri 16,7 m.

 

 

 

Name

The name of the town in Albanian is Berat or Berati, which is derived from the older Bel(i)grad (Белград, meaning "white city" in the South Slavic languages), under which name it was known in Greek, Latin and Slavic documents during the High and Late Middle Ages. That name was rendered as Bellegrada (Βελλέγραδα) in Greek. It is believed to have been the site of an Ancient Macedonian stronghold, Antipatreia (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιπάτρεια "city of Antipater") or Antipatrea in Latin, while during the early Byzantine Empire the name of the town was Pulcheriopolis (Greek: Πουλχεριόπολις, "city of Pulcheria"). In the Republic of Venice the city was known as Belgrad di Romania, while in the Ottoman Empire it was also known as Belgrad-i Arnavud (Albanian Belgrade) to distinguish it from Belgrade.


Geography


The river Osum, flowing through Berat, with the hill of the citadel on the left

Berat lies on the right bank of the river Osum, a short distance from the point where it is joined by the Molisht river. It has a wealth of beautiful buildings of high architectural and historical interest. The pine forests above the city, on the slopes of the towering Tomorr mountains, provide a backdrop of appropriate grandeur. The Osumi river has cut a 915-metre deep gorge through the limestone rock on the west side of the valley to form a precipitous natural fortress, around which the town was built on several river terraces.

According to an Albanian legend, the Tomorr mountain was originally a giant, who fought with another giant, called Shpirag over a young woman. They killed each other and the girl drowned in her tears, which then became the Osum river.

Mount Shpirag, named after the second giant, is on the left bank of the gorge, above the district of Gorica. Berat is known to Albanians as The City of a Thousand Windows (a similar epithet is sometimes applied to Gjirokastra), or The City of Two Thousand Steps. It was proclaimed a 'Museum City' by the dictator Enver Hoxha in June 1961.


History


Ancient
Berat in 1813
The entrance of the citadel of Berat, with the 13th-century Byzantine church of the Holy Trinity
Antipatrea in the antiquity

The earliest recorded inhabitants of the city (6th century BC) were the Greek tribe of the Dassaretae or Dexarioi, the northernmost subgroup of the Chaonians, and the region was known as Dessaretis after them.[3][4] Modern Berat occupies the site of Antipatreia (Ancient Greek: Αντιπάτρεια), which originally was a settlement of the Dexarioi[5] and later a Macedonian stronghold in southern Illyria.[3][6] The founding date is unknown, although if Cassander is the founder it has been suggested that Antipatreia was founded after he took control of the region around 314 BC.In 200 BC it was captured by the Roman legatus Lucius Apustius, who razed the walls and massacred the male population of the city.


Medieval

The town became part of the unstable frontier of the Byzantine Empire following the fall of the Roman Empire and, along with much of the rest of the Balkan peninsula, it suffered from repeated invasions by Slavs. During the Roman and early Byzantine period, the city was known as Pulcheriopolis.

The First Bulgarian Empire under Presian I captured the town in the 9th century, and the city received the Slavic name Bel[i]grad ("White City"), Belegrada (Βελέγραδα) in Greek, which persisted throughout the medieval period, changing to Berat under Ottoman rule. The town became one of the most important towns in the Bulgarian region Kutmichevitsa. The Bulgarian governor Elemag surrendered the city to the emperor Basil II in 1018, and the city remained in Byzantine hands until the Second Bulgarian Empire retook the city in 1203 during the rule of Kaloyan. During the 13th century, it fell to Michael I Ducas, the ruler of the Despotate of Epirus.

Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos sent letters to the Albanian leaders of Berat and Durrės in 1272 asking them to abandon their alliance with Charles I of Naples, leader of the Kingdom of Albania, who had captured and incorporated it at the same period in the Kingdom of Albania. However, they sent the letters to Charles as a sign of their loyalty. In 1274 Michael VIII recaptured Berat and after being joined by Albanians who supported the Byzantine Empire, marched unsuccessfully against the Angevin capital of Durrės. In 1280-1281 the Sicilian forces under Hugh the Red of Sully laid siege to Berat. In March 1281 a relief force from Constantinople under the command of Michael Tarchaneiotes was able to drive off the besieging Sicilian army. Later in the 13th century Berat again fell under the control of the Byzantine Empire. In 1335 Albanians from Epirus Nova invaded the area of Berat and appeared in Epirus for the first time,while in 1345 the town passed to the Serbs. During the second half of the 14th century the noble Albanian family of Muzaka and became the capital of the Principality of Berat.

In 1417 it was captured by the Ottoman Empire, while in 1455 Skanderbeg tried to recapture the city. Although the his forces won a tactical victory, they didn't manage to capture it.
Modern

During the 18th century Berat was one the most important Albanian cities of the Ottoman Empire. In the early modern era the city was the capital of the Pashalik of Berat founded by Ahmet Kurt Pasha. Berat was incorporated in the Pashalik of Yanina after Ibrahim Pasha of Berat was defeated by Ali Pasha in 1809. In 1867, Berat became a sanjak in Yannina (Yanya) vilayet.

During the early period of Ottoman rule, Berat fell into severe decline. By the end of the 16th century it had only 710 houses. However it began to recover by the 17th century and became a major craft centre specializing in wood carving. During the 19th century, Berat played an important part in the Albanian national revival. A Greek school was operating in the city already from 1835.[19] It became a major base of support for the League of Prizren, the late 19th century Albanian nationalist alliance, while the city was also represented in the formation of southern branch of the league in Gjirokastėr. From 23 to 30 October 1944, the second session of the Council of National Liberation of Albania was held in Berat, where the National Liberation Movement-controlled Anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee became the Provisional Democratic Government of Albania, with Enver Hoxha as its prime minister and minister of defence.


Economy

By the 18th century the economy and society of Berat was closely connected to the city's craft guilds partly related to various tax exemptions that existed since the late Middle Ages. By 1750 there were twenty-two guilds, the most important of which were the tanners', the cobblers' and other leather-working guilds. Other guilds included metal-working, silver-smithing and silk-making ones.
Landmarks
Panorama of Berat from the Castle

Berat Castle is built on a rocky hill on the right bank of the river Osum and is accessible only from the south. After being burned down by the Romans in 200 BC the walls were strengthened in the 5th century under Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II, and were rebuilt during the 6th century under the Emperor Justinian I and again in the 13th century under the Despot of Epirus, Michael Komnenos Doukas, cousin of the Byzantine Emperor. The main entrance, on the north side, is defended by a fortified courtyard and there are three smaller entrances. The fortress of Berat in its present state, even though considerably damaged, remains a magnificent sight. The surface that it encompasses made it possible to house a considerable portion of the town's inhabitants. The buildings inside the fortress were built during the 13th century and because of their characteristic architecture are preserved as cultural monuments. The population of the fortress was Christian, and it had about 20 churches (most built during the 13th century) and only one mosque, for the use of the Muslim garrison, (of which there survives only a few ruins and the base of the minaret). The churches of the fortress have been damaged through the years and only some remain.
Gorica Neighborhood as seen from the Castle

The Church of St. Mary of Blachernae dating from the 13th century, has 16th century mural paintings by Nikollė Onufri, son of the most important post-medieval Albanian painter, Onufri. In a small tree - planted square, on a hillside inside the walls of the fortress, stands the 14th century Church of the Holy Trinity. It is built in the form of a cross and has Byzantine murals. Outside the ramparts is the Church of St. Michael (Shėn Mehill), built in the 13th century. This church is reached by a steep but perfectly safe path. Near the entrance, after a guardhouse, is the little Church of St. Theodore (Shen Todher), which have wall paintings by Onufri himself. The most interesting is the cathedral of St. Nicholas, which has been well restored and is now a museum dedicated to Onufri. Onufri was the greatest of the 16th century painters in Albania. Not only was he a master of the techniques of fresco and icons, but he was the first to introduce a new colour in painting, shiny red, which the French called "Onufri's Red". In addition, Onufri introduced a certain realism and a degree of individuality in facial expression.
Tomorri Mountain in the distance

The first inscription recording Onufri's name was found in 1951, in the Shelqan church. The Kastoria church has a date 23 July 1547 and a reference to Onufri's origin : I am Onufri, and come from the town of Berat. Onufri's style in painting was inherited by his son, Nikolla (Nicholas), though not so successful as his father. In Onufri's museum can be found works of Onufri, his son, Nikolla and other painters'. There are also numbers of icons and some fine examples of religious silversmith's work (sacred vessels, icon casings, covers of Gospel books, etc.). Berat Gospels, which date from the 4th century, are copies (the originals are preserved in the National Archives in Tirana). The church itself has a magnificent iconostasis of carved wood, with two very fine icons of Christ and the Virgin Mary. The bishop's throne and the pulpit are also of considerable quality.
The Lead Mosque

Near the street running down from the fortress is the Bachelors' Mosque (Xhami e Beqareve), built in 1827. This has a handsome portico and an interesting external decoration of flowers, plants, houses, etc. The 'Bachelors' were the young shop-assistants (in practice generally unmarried), whom the merchants in Berat used as their own private militia. The King Mosque (Albanian: Xhamia e Mbretit), the oldest in the town built in the reign of Bayazid II (1481–1512), is notable for its fine ceiling.

The Lead Mosque (Xhamia e Plumbit), built in 1555 and so called from the covering of its cupola. This mosque is the centre of the town.

The Halveti Tekke (Teqe e Helvetive) is thought to have been built in the 15th century. It was rebuilt by Ahmet Kurt Pasha in 1782. It belongs to the Khalwati Sufi order. It is composed of the prayer hall with a square plan, a small ambience for special religious services and a gracious portico in front of the entrance to the prayer hall. In the prayer hall is a mafil carved in wood and decorated. On the eastern side of the prayer hall is the mihrab decorated with stone stalactites. The inner walls have been decorated with eight frescoes, depicting dwelling houses, Muslim religious buildings and landscapes.
One of the dozen Byzantine Churches found inside the Castle

The walls below the frescoes are covered by holes that improve the acoustics in the prayer hall. The ceiling of the prayer hall is made of wood and is decorated with paintings valued as the most beautiful of the time. The ceiling has been decorated in the Baroque style adopted in Islamic art and is covered with 14 carat gold plates. The inner decorations were carried out by Master Dush Barka. Attached to the prayer hall is a room in which once was the mausoleum of Ahmet Kurt Pasha and his son. The portico of the tekke has five stone columns which were taken from the ancient Greek city of Apollonia. Above the main door in the portico is an inscription dedicated to the values of the tekke and to Ahmet Kurt Pasha.

Near of tekke is purported to be the grave of Shabbatai Zevi, a Turkish Jew who had been banished to Dulcigno (present day Ulcinj) who created controversy among his followers upon his conversion to Islam.
Sights
Typical side street in Berat.
A closer look at Mangalemi Neighborhood

The town is still renowned for its historic architecture and scenic beauty and is known as the "Town of a Thousand Windows", due to the many large windows of the old decorated houses overlooking the town.

It is unclear whether it really means "Thousand" (njė mijė) or "One over Another" (njė mbi njė) windows. Indeed, the quarter is built in a very steep place and windows seem to be one over another. Similar views can be seen in Gjirokastėr, as well as Catanzaro in Italy, where an Albanian minority once lived.

The Citadel overlooks the river and the modern city as well as the old Christian quarter across the river. It is a well preserved area containing narrow streets, Turkish houses and Orthodox churches.

Modern Berat consists of three parts divided by the Osum River: Gorica ("little mountain" in Old Church Slavonic), Mangalem and Kalaja, the latter being a residential quarter within the old Byzantine citadel that overlooks the town. The town also has a 15th-century mosque and a number of churches of the Albanian Orthodox Church, whose autocephaly was proclaimed there in 1922. Several of the churches house works by the renowned 16th century painter Onufri.

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